Director: Steven Friedman

Steven Friedman.jpg

Prof Steven Friedman

Steven Friedman is a political scientist whose has specialised in the study of democracy. During the 1980s, he produced a series of studies of reform apartheid and its implications for a democratic future. He researched and wrote widely on the South African transition to democracy both before and after the elections of 1994 and has, over the past decade, largely written on the relationship between democracy on the one hand, social inequality and economic growth on the other. In particular, he has stressed the role of citizen voice in strengthening democracy and promoting equality.

He is the author of Building Tomorrow Today, a study of the South African trade union movement and the implications of its growth for democracy, and the editor of The Long Journey and The Small Miracle (with Doreen Atkinson), which presented the outcome of two research projects on the South African transition. For the past few years, he has been studying the role of citizen action in strengthening and sustaining democracy, with a particular focus on the activism of people living with HIV and AIDS.

Friedman has recently completed the manuscript of a book,  Power in Action: Democracy, Collective Action and Social Justice,  an attempt to develop a theory of democracy which assigns primacy to the role of collective action in creating and sustaining democratic systems of government. 


Building Tomorrow Today: African Workers in Trade Unions 1970-1984, Ravan Press, 1985. 

Black Politics at the Crossroads, SA Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR), 1986

Understanding Reform, SAIRR, 1986

The Limits of Co-Option, SAIRR, 1986

Reform Revisited, SAIRR, 1987

New Mood in Moscow, SAIRR, 1988

"The National Party in the South African Transition", in Transition to Democracy, Centre for Policy Studies, 1991.

"Soweto: Managing the Transition?", Politikon, Volume 18, Number 1, January, 1991.

"Another Elephant?: Prospects for A South African Social Contract", CPS, 1991

"An Unlikely Utopia: State and Civil Society in South Africa", Politikon, December, 1991

"The Shapers of Things To Come?: National Party Choices in the South African Transition", CPS, 1992

"The Politics of Economic Compromise" in R. Schrire (ed). - The Economic Debate, Oxford University Press, 1992

The Elusive "Community": The Dynamics of Negotiated Urban Development, CPS, 1993

Editor (with Richard Humphries), Federalism and Its Foes, CPS, 1993

Editor, The Long Journey: South Africa's Quest for A Negotiated Settlement, Ravan Press, 1993

"South Africa's Reluctant Transition", Journal of Democracy, Volume 4, Number 2, April, 1993

Editor (with Doreen Atkinson), The Small Miracle: South Africa's Negotiated Settlement, Ravan Press, 1994

Yesterday's Pact: Power-Sharing and Legitimate Governance in Post-Settlement South Africa, Centre for Policy Studies, 1994

Every Navigator Needs A Map: The Case for Independent Policy Research in South Africa, Centre for Policy Studies, 1995

(With Maxine Reitzes) Democratic Selections? Civil Society and Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Development Bank of South Africa, 1995

"South Africa: Divided In a Special Way" in Diamond, Larry, Linz, Juan and Lipset, Seymour Martin (eds)., Politics in Developing Countries, Lynne Rienner, 1995

Author, South African entry, Lipset (ed.) Encyclopedia of Democracy, Congressional Quarterly, 1995.

"Too Little Knowledge is a Dangerous Thing: South Africa's Bargained Transition, Democratic Prospects and John Rawls's Veil of Ignorance", Politikon

"Delivery and Its Discontents: Delivery Targets and the Development Challenge", Development Southern Africa, October 1997

The Problem with Policy, Centre for Policy Studies Policy Brief, 1998

“No Easy Stroll to Dominance: Party Dominance, Opposition and Civil Society in South Africa” in Hermann Giliomee and Charles Simkins (eds) The Awkward Embrace: One-Party Domination and Democracy, Amsterdam, Harwood, 1999   (also published in Towards Democracy, January 1997)

“Agreeing to Differ: African Democracy - Its Obstacles and Prospects Social Research 1999

“Who We Are: Voter Participation, Rationality and the 1999 Election”  Politikon November 1999

“South Africa After Mandela” Journal of Democracy October 1999

with Mark Shaw ‘ Power in Partnership? Trade Unions, Forums and the Transition’ in  Glenn Adler and Eddie Webster (eds) Trade Unions and Democratization in South Africa 1985-1997 St Martin’s Press, New York, 2000

with Ivor Chipkin A Poor Voice?: The Politics of Inequality in South Africa, Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies, 2001

Free But Unequal: democracy, inequality and the State in Latin America and Africa, Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies 2001

‘A Quest for Control: High Modernism and Its Discontents in Johannesburg, South Africa’ in Blair A Ruble, Richard E Stren, Joseph S Tulchin with Diana H Varat (eds) Urban Governance Around the World Washington DC Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, 2002

‘Democracy, Inequality and the Reconstitution of Politics’ in Joseph S Tulchin with Amelia Brown (ed.) Democratic Governance and Social Inequality, Boulder, Lynne Rienner, 2002

‘Equity in the Age of Informality: Labour markets and Redistributive Politics in South Africa’ Transformation 50, 2002 

‘Equity in the Age of Informality: Labour markets and Redistributive Politics in South Africa’ Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex, Working Paper 160, July 2002

With Dumisani Hlophe ‘…And Their Hearts and Minds will Follow? Tax Collection, Authority and Legitimacy in Democratic South Africa’ IDS Bulletin 33 (3), Institute for Development Studies, Sussex University, 2002

‘The State, Civil Society and Social Policy: Setting a Research Agenda’ Politikon, 30 (1), pp. 3-25, 2003

Golden Dawn or White Flag?: The State, Civil Society and Social Policy, Durban, Olive Publications, 2003

Sending them a Message: Culture, Tax Collection and Governance in South Africa Johannesburg, Centre for Policy Studies  Policy Issues and Actors 2003

‘Agreeing to Differ: African Democracy – Its Obstacles and Prospects’ in Mammo Muchie (ed) The Making of the Africa-Nation: Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance,  London, Adonis and Abbey, 2003  

“South Africa: Building Democracy After Apartheid” in E Gyimah-Boadi (ed.) Democratic Reform in Africa: The Quality of Progress,  Boulder, London, Lynne Rienner, 2004 

“The Forgotten Sovereign: citizens, states and foreign policy in the south’ in Justin Robertson and Maurice A East (eds) Diplomacy and Developing Nations: Post-Cold War foreign policy-making structures and processes Abingdon, Routledge, 2005 

“South Africa: Globalization and the Politics of Redistribution” in Joseph S Tulchin and Gary Bland (eds) Getting Globalization Right: The Dilemmas of Inequality Boulder, London, Lynne Rienner, 2005 pp. 11-49

(With Kenny Hlela and Paul Thulare) “ A question of voice: informality and pro-poor policy in Johannesburg, South Africa” in Nabeel Hamdi (ed) Urban Futures: Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction, Rugby, United Kingdom, ITDG, 2005, pp.51-68

‘’Getting Better Than "World Class": The Challenge of Governing Postapartheid South Africa’ Social Research Vol. 72, No. 3 (Fall 2005)

(with Shauna Mottiar) ‘A Rewarding Engagement? The Treatment Action Campaign and the Politics of HIV/AIDS’ Politics & Society 2005 no 33 pp 511-565

‘Voice for Some’ in Jessica Piombo and Lia Nijzink (eds) Electoral Politics in South Africa: Assessing the First Democratic Decade, New York,  Palgrave Macmillan  May 2006

Participatory governance and citizen action in post-apartheid South Africa Geneva, International Institute of Labour Studies, 2006, Discussion Paper /164/2006

( with Mark Robinson) ‘Civil Society, Democratization, and Foreign Aid: Civic Engagement and Public Policy in South Africa and Uganda’ Democratization, Volume 14, Issue 4, 2007, pp. 643 – 668

The Extraordinary ‘Ordinary’: The Campaign for Comprehensive AIDS Treatment in South Africa Institute for Development Studies, Sussex University, Web Version September, 2007

(with Judi Hudson and Shaun Mackay) New whims for old? Corporate giving in South Africa in Adam Habib, Brij Maharaj (eds) Giving and Solidarity: Resource Flows for Poverty Alleviation in South Africa Cape Town, HSRC Press, 2007 

(with Judi Hudson and Shaun Mackay) ‘The colour of giving: racial identity and corporate social investment’ in Adam Habib, Brij Maharaj (eds) Giving and Solidarity: Resource Flows for Poverty Alleviation in South Africa Cape Town, HSRC Press, 2007 

(with Zimitri Erasmus) ‘Counting on “Race”: what the surveys say (and do not say) about “race” and redress in Adam Habib and Kristina Bentley (eds) Racial Redress and Citizenship in South Africa, Cape Town, HSRC Press, 2008 ​​​

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